Accession country

Energy system of Latvia

Latvia is undertaking its energy transition with some promising results to date, with the goal to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions (without land use, land-use change and forestry) by 65% from 1990 levels by 2030 and to achieve net zero by 2050. It has made inroads on the share of renewable energy in its fuel mix, with sizeable shares of bioenergy and hydropower.

Renewable energy sources dominate its electricity mix, in particular, accounting for around three-quarters of domestic generation. Other sectors, notably transport and buildings, continue to consume large amounts of energy and rely on dated infrastructure that hinders stronger reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, energy efficiency and fuel switching in these sectors will require greater focus.

Latvia’s hydro-dominated electricity system provides a favourable starting point to use clean electricity to decarbonise other economic sectors. Moreover, given Latvia’s historic dependence on energy imports from Russia, its transition to clean energy sources offers an important opportunity to bolster energy security and lower energy prices.

Latvia 2024

This Energy Policy Review was prepared in partnership between the Government of Latvia and the IEA. It draws on the IEA’s extensive knowledge and the inputs of expert peers from IEA member countries to assess Latvia’s most pressing energy sector challenges and provide recommendations on how to address them, backed by international best practices.