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Energy End-uses and Efficiency Indicators Data Explorer

Explore energy and emission data by country, end-uses and product, from 2000 onwards in four sectors (residential, services, industry and transport) for IEA member countries and beyond

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This online tool shows a selection of energy demand and efficiency data part of the IEA Energy End-uses and Efficiency Indicators database (EEI).

The EEI database contains energy and emission data by country, end-uses and product, from 2000 onwards. It covers four sectors (residential, services, industry and transport) for IEA member countries and beyond. The EEI database includes also energy efficiency indicators defined as a ratio between the energy (or emissions) data and the relevant activity (for instance energy intensity by mode/vehicle type measured in MJ/pkm).

To find more information on the geographical coverage, details on each of the countries dataset, methodology and definitions, please refer to the database documentation.


The amount of energy used to generate a unit of GDP, also called energy intensity of the economy (TES/GDP), decreased globally by 36% between 1990 and 2021, with large regional variations. The fall has been greater outside the OECD. For example, in China, intensity more than halved (-72%) over this period.

Global energy intensity, 1990 versus 2021


Is energy intensity an energy efficiency indicator?

Energy intensity is often used as an indicator of energy efficiency – mainly because, at the aggregate level, it is a proxy measurement for the energy required to satisfy the services demanded. In addition, it is a relatively easy indicator to calculate and compare across countries. However, the correlation between energy intensity and energy efficiency is not always perfect. For instance, a small services-based economy in a mild climate would have a lower intensity than a large industry-based economy in a cold climate, even if the latter uses energy more efficiently. Equally, trends towards lower intensity are not necessarily driven by efficiency improvements.

Other elements also play a role in defining intensity levels and trends, including the economic structure (share of large energy-consuming industries), geographic characteristics (e.g. longer distances leading to higher demand for transport), climate and weather conditions (demand changes for heating or cooling), and the exchange rate.

That is why more detailed analysis is needed to provide insight into the factors driving final energy use trends.


Decomposition analysis allows energy demand growth to be broken down by activity, structure and efficiency efforts. The actual final consumption is the net result of all those drivers. For instance, it is estimated that energy efficiency improvements in IEA member since 2000 saved approximately 24% of energy use by 2021, as much as the final energy consumption of India. The industry and services sector accounted for 58% of these savings, buildings 23% and transport 19%.

Estimated savings of final energy use in IEA countries, 2000-2021


Cross-sectoral energy efficiency trends in IEA countries

Over the period 2000-2021, efficiency gains offset most the increased energy use that would have resulted from growing activity.

Decomposition of change in IEA total final energy use, 2000-2021


Energy efficiency improvements deliver significant benefits for the climate, national budgets and for energy consumers. For example, long-running appliance efficiency policies such as minimum energy performance standards or energy labels have helped halve the average consumption of many common appliances such as refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, televisions, washing machines and cooking appliances. These huge gains have been achieved even as prices for these appliances have fallen 2% to 3% per year on average, suggesting that more stringent policies could curb CO2 emissions even further while still benefiting consumers. For example, in the United States, energy-efficient standards and label programmes produced net annual fuel cost savings of around USD 40 billion in 2020 or a reduction in the average annual household fuel bill of USD 320.

For more details on the methodology used please refer to the database documentation

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