Appliances & equipment

Growth in energy use by household appliances shows no signs of decelerating, yet only one-third of appliance energy use today is covered by mandatory performance standards.

Appliances Jpg

Key findings

Electricity consumption by appliances and equipment in the Net Zero Scenario, 2000-2030


In 2021 energy consumption by appliances grew by nearly 4%, which also drove the increase in emissions

Energy consumption by appliances and equipment continues to grow, driven largely by increasing numbers of buildings and expanding ownership and use of energy-consuming devices, especially in emerging economies.

To get on track with the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario, most appliances and equipment being sold in 2030 need to match today’s best available technology. Despite improvements in efficiency resulting from stricter minimum energy performance standards in many regions, further gains are needed and must be accompanied by shifts in user-centred behaviour to reduce household electricity needs. Governments need to enhance current efforts to realise this goal.

Annual energy reduction in new-product energy consumption from EES&L programmes


EES&Ls can lift the average rate of energy efficiency improvement by two to three times

Based on global evidence from countries with Energy efficiency standards and labelling (EES&L) programmes, the average energy efficiency of new major appliances in these countries can increase two to three times the underlying rate of technology improvement. This can result in average energy reductions of 10-30% over 15 to 20 years in the stock of most regulated products across all countries.

In leading countries with strong regulations and long-running programmes which are regularly updated, the contribution could be much higher, with EES&L programmes helping reduce the electricity consumption of many appliances by over 50%.
Our work

The aims of the 4E TCP are to promote energy efficiency as the key to ensuring safe, reliable, affordable and sustainable energy systems. As an international platform for collaboration between governments, the 4E TCP provides policy guidance to its members and other governments concerning energy using equipment and systems. The 4E TCP prioritises technologies and applications with significant energy consumption and energy saving potential within the residential, commercial and industrial sectors (not including transport). To meet its aims, the 4E TCP harnesses the expertise of governments, industry, experts and other TCPs for joint research related to the development and deployment of energy efficient equipment.