Cooling energy use in buildings has doubled since 2000, making it the fastest growing end-use in buildings, led by a combination of warmer temperatures and increased activity.Read more
Demand for space cooling has risen at an average pace of 4% per year since 2000, twice as quickly as for lighting or water heating. Higher energy consumption for space cooling particularly impacts peak electricity demand, especially during hot days when equipment is used at full capacity. Although space cooling equipment performance is improving continuously and electricity production is becoming less carbon-intensive, CO2 emissions from space cooling are increasing rapidly – more than doubling to nearly 1 Gt between 1990 and 2020. The use of air conditioners and electric fans already accounts for nearly 16% of the total electricity in buildings around the world – or 10% of all global electricity consumption.
Over the next three decades, the use of ACs is set to soar, becoming one of the top drivers of global electricity demand. Moving ACs average energy performance towards the current level of best-available technology or beyond is key to dampen the impact of rapidly growing cooling demand on the electricity system.
Last updated Oct 6, 2022
CO2 emissions from, and emissions intensity of, air conditioning in the Net Zero Scenario, 2000-2030Open
Most people purchase new air conditioners that are two to three times less efficient than the best available model
As the planet warms, ensuring that cooling needs are met equitably is of primary importance. Efficiency standards are a key measure to avoid the lock-in of inefficient air-conditioning units in coming decades, together with improved design of buildings and districts, and passive, nature-based and alternative solutions to air conditioners, which need to be prioritised where possible to mitigate the growth in demand for active technologies.
Global air conditioner stock, 1990-2050Open
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The Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program (K-CEP) is a philanthropic collaboration launched in 2017 to support the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol and the transition to efficient, clean cooling solutions for all.
This site serves as a progress tracker for the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol.
The DHC TCP conducts research and development as well as policy analysis and international co-operation to increase the market penetration of district heating and cooling systems with low environmental impact.
The mission of the Energy Storage TCP is to facilitate research, development, implementation and integration of energy storage technologies to optimise the energy efficiency of all kinds of energy systems and enable the increasing use of renewable energy. Storage technologies are a central component in energy-efficient and sustainable energy systems. Energy storage is a cross-cutting issue that relies on expert knowledge of many disciplines. The Energy Storage TCP fosters widespread experience, synergies and cross-disciplinary co-ordination of working plans and research goals.
The HPT TCP functions as an international framework of co-operation and knowledge exchange for the different stakeholders in the field of heat pumping technologies used for heating, cooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration in buildings, industries, thermal grids and other applications. The mission of the HPT TCP is to accelerate the transformation to an efficient, renewable, clean and secure energy sector in its member countries and beyond through collaboration research, demonstration and data collection and through enabling innovations and deployment in the area of heat pumping technologies.
Through multi-disciplinary international collaborative research and knowledge exchange, as well as market and policy recommendations, the SHC TCP works to increase the deployment rate of solar heating and cooling systems by breaking down the technical and non-technical barriers to increase deployment.