The decree provides a list of engineering and environmental specifications for different types of facilities in Kuwait. Specifications to oil and gas facilities (articles 35 to 44) include the need for continuous monitoring and measurement of pollutants throughout the different project phases, starting at the construction phase. All monitoring data should be linked to the online data system of the Environment Public Authority. Operators are further required to use best available technology, ensuring lowest achievable emissions rate, and maximise renewable energy use. With regards to flaring activities, operators must:
· Minimise flared volumes;
· Use efficient flares systems and optimize the size and number of flares;
· Improve the mixture of steam/air/gas to maximize combustion efficiency;
· Install flare recovery units;
· Install knock-out drums;
· Undertake preventive maintenance;
· Ensure an efficiency higher than 95%.
Article 38 lists measures specific to oil refineries, including:
· Avoiding flaring on start-ups and during operations;
· Installing permanent gas detection equipment;
· Implementing periodic LDAR (Leak Detection and Repair)
· Deploy adequate sealing for actuators (e.g. carbon fiber seals);
· Use compressors with double mechanical seals, wet seal or dry seals that prevent emissions during operations;
· Install vapor recovery units for vents and loading/unloading points;
· Use storage tanks with a floating roof or fixed roof with internal floating ceiling equipped with adequate seals.
Article 39 outlines measures for the design and operation of hydrocarbon storage tanks, including:
· Provide recovery systems for loading and unloading activities;
· Use pumps equipped with seals and check them periodically;
· Quantify emissions from storage tanks and avoid venting;
· Equip the facility with a system for early detection of gas emissions.
Article 40 outlines measures for oil and gas exploration activities and states that flaring is a priority over venting. All alternatives must be assessed to recover hydrocarbons to ensure flaring is minimised outside emergency situations.
Article 41 and 42 cover oil and gas pipelines and water treatment facilities. They require a leak detection system to be installed and remote monitoring to collect pressure and valve status data. They also require operators to limit and control the amount of emissions during design, operation and maintenance of these installations.
Article 43 introduces specifications for oil and gas extraction and production facilities, including that they must reduce and control emissions in the different project phases (design, operation and maintenance).
Article 44, regarding oil and gas production facilities and gas processing facilities, requires emissions control measures, including the use of appropriate valves, flanges, and other components based on its capacity to limit leaks, as well as the implementation of LDAR. Blowdowns are prohibited at gas processing facilities. In case of power shortage, equipment shutdown or emergency, gas flows should be controlled, used for power generation or heat recovery, or as a last resort flared.