Australia has significant reserves of critical minerals and metals, which are essential for the production of technologies required to support clean energy transitions. Under the country’s “Modern Manufacturing Strategy”, the government included a Resources Technology and Critical Minerals Processing National Manufacturing Priority road map. It consists of investing in technological innovation to improve the productivity of the critical minerals industry while reducing its environmental impacts. In particular, expanding opportunities for critical minerals processing is a goal of the roadmap. The government seeks to improve the environmental performance of the sector by reducing waste, promoting metal recovery, reducing the use of toxic substances in processing, and improving water use and emissions efficiency. Growing the resources and manufacturing industry is expected to capture significant economic growth and job opportunities in the process.