The Biomass Research and Development Act signed in June 2000 comes as a complement to the Executive Order on Bioproducts and Bioenergy issued by the U.S. government in 1999. The act authorizes USD 49 million in funding over a five-year period and directs the Departments of Energy and Agriculture to integrate their biomass R & D, establish a technical advisory committee (Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee) for strategic planning for biomass R & D and agency board (Biomass Research and Development Board). The Act requires these entities to co-ordinate activities related to biobased products and bioenergy. Sec. 941 of EPAct 2005, amended that Act. It introduced four new technical areas for R & D activities: (1) develop crops and systems that improve feedstock production and processing, (2) convert recalcitrant cellulosic biomass into intermediates that can be used to produce biobased fuels and products, (3) develop technologies that yield a wide range of biobased products that increase the feasibility of fuel production in a biorefinery, and (4) analyze biomass technologies for their impact on sustainability and environmental quality, security, and rural economic development. Sec. 9008 of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008, further amended the Act. It authorized USD 35 million for each of the fiscal years 2009 through 2012.