The National Technology Agency (Tekes) technology programme Waste to REF and Energy performed RD & D on technologies that could lead to new business opportunities. The programme was operated between 1998 and 2001 to consider solutions to waste management that included the use of waste for energy purposes. Goals for the programme were partly guided by the national waste management plan. The plans objective was to raise the use of municipal waste from slightly under 40% to 70% by 2005. This meant that € 300 to 500 million in investment would be needed to use the energy recovered from waste. In addition, the EU landfill directive called for a reduction in landfill waste and measures to reduce wastes. The annual turnover of waste management in Finland totals approximately € 1 billion. A total of € 16 million was granted as funding to fifty RD & D projects under the Waste to REF and Energy technology programme. Finland has the worlds leading expertise on bio-energy technologies.