In 2006, a fifth scheme was added, (ES; Energy and Concerted action projects). New Energy Research (NEO) stimulates non-conventional research. It covers the entire energy research area, generation, conversion, storage, efficiency, renewables etc. Projects are non-conventional and new, lead to sustainability and new research areas; have a high technological risk and are innovative. NEO is targeted to inventors, scientists, students, entrepreneurs and researchers EOS Long Term (EOS-LT) support researchers with promising plans that in the long term lead to a sustainable energy supply. EOS-LT is aimed at research that strengthens the Netherlands knowledge position and paves the way for the introduction of innovative energy technologies. The subsidy scheme stimulates research in the defined priority areas and areas for international co-operation mentioned above. EOS Long Term (EOS-LT) is targeted to Netherlands universities, research institutes and (SME-) enterprises that carry out energy research. Subsidies are awarded for, fundamental research, which enhances the general scientific and technical and has no industrial or commercial goal; industrial research, which acquires new or improves existing knowledge to be used to develop new products, processes or services. EOS Demonstration (EOS-Demo) stimulates demonstration projects that lead to energy conservation and/or an increase in the use of renewable energy. Demonstration projects test new technologies, methods and application in a realistic environment. The subsidy scheme supports projects in the defined priority areas and areas for international co-operation mentioned above. Projects are awarded subsidy in rounds of tenders. The subsidy is 40% of the additional costs compared to a reference situation. EOS Unique Opportunities (EOS-UKR) supports transition experiments that contribute to the transition towards a sustainable energy economy in the Netherlands. To be supported the project have to be on a recognised path of transition. These paths are, efficient and green gas; efficiency of chains of production and materials; green biomaterials; alternative motor fuels and renewable electricity. The transition experiments aim to verify how a new (part of) an energy system behaves in a concrete practical situation and how the environment reacts to it. A coalition with a Netherlands market as leader carries out the experiment. Transition experiments are evaluated with the following criteria, the contribution of the reduction of CO2, N2O and CH4; costs per ton of avoided CO2 in a scaled up situation in 2020; the contribution of the reduction of other emissions like heavy metals, dioxins, PAK, NOx, SO2, fine particles and waste; source and sustainability of used raw materials, aspects of CO2 sequestration. Projects are awarded subsidy in rounds of tenders. The subsidy is 40% of the additional costs compared to a reference situation. Energy and Concerted action projects (ES) supports non-commercial research and development in the field of innovative energy technology. Concerted action is, besides technical innovation, economic perspective and sustainability, one of the major criterion for assessing requests for ES subsidy.