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Data tables

Coal demand (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

5 650

5 720

5 597

5 718

-2.1%

2.2%

China

3 793

3 834

3 814

3 875

-0.5%

1.6%

India

997

979

911

946

-6.9%

3.8%

Japan

183

184

170

171

-7.3%

0.5%

Southeast Asia

292

332

335

357

0.8%

6.6%

North America

670

583

478

526

-17.9%

10.0%

United States

619

532

438

487

-17.7%

11.1%

Central and South America

52

53

46

45

-13.0%

-1.7%

Europe

799

693

588

602

-15.1%

2.3%

European Union

595

484

386

400

-20.2%

3.5%

Middle East

13

13

11

10

-18.1%

-12.8%

Eurasia

372

368

340

345

-7.7%

1.5%

Russia

230

230

214

217

-6.6%

1.3%

Africa

210

197

183

187

-7.3%

2.3%

World

7 766

7 627

7 243

7 432

-5.0%

2.6%

Notes: Mt = million tonnes. Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite demand (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

4 819

4 853

4 743

4 839

-2.3%

2.0%

China

3 135

3 143

3 107

3 161

-1.1%

1.8%

India

930

913

859

882

-5.9%

2.6%

Japan

137

138

133

131

-3.2%

-1.6%

Southeast Asia

281

318

322

343

1.2%

6.5%

North America

644

558

457

503

-18.1%

10.2%

United States

601

515

424

471

-17.7%

11.3%

Central and South America

36

38

33

31

-13.8%

-5.8%

Europe

721

621

525

532

-15.6%

1.4%

European Union

529

425

336

344

-21.0%

2.5%

Middle East

9

9

7

6

-23.5%

-21.2%

Eurasia

284

273

254

254

-7.0%

0.0%

Russia

161

156

147

146

-5.8%

-0.4%

Africa

205

193

179

183

-7.2%

2.2%

World

6 720

6 547

6 198

6 348

-5.3%

2.4%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal demand (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

831

866

855

879

-1.3%

2.9%

China

657

691

708

714

2.4%

0.8%

India

67

66

52

64

-20.2%

22.7%

Japan

46

46

37

40

-19.6%

8.1%

Southeast Asia

11

14

13

15

-6.4%

9.4%

North America

26

25

21

23

-15.0%

7.1%

United States

18

17

14

15

-15.8%

6.6%

Central and South America

16

15

13

14

-11.1%

8.6%

Europe

77

71

63

70

-11.4%

10.1%

European Union

66

59

51

56

-14.2%

9.8%

Middle East

4

4

4

4

-5.2%

3.4%

Eurasia

88

95

86

91

-9.5%

5.9%

Russia

69

74

68

71

-8.5%

5.0%

Africa

5

4

4

4

-12.3%

8.6%

World

1 047

1 080

1 045

1 084

-3.2%

3.7%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal production (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

5 538

5 779

5 592

5 662

-3.2%

1.2%

China

3 549

3 693

3 690

3 685

-0.1%

-0.1%

India

790

783

743

771

-5.1%

3.7%

Australia

489

505

459

476

-9.1%

3.7%

Indonesia

548

616

529

545

-14.2%

3.0%

North America

759

709

556

604

-21.6%

8.5%

United States

686

640

491

539

-23.3%

9.9%

Central and South America

92

90

65

62

-28.2%

-3.4%

Europe

594

535

450

461

-15.9%

2.5%

European Union

441

373

297

308

-20.5%

4.0%

Middle East

2

2

2

2

-7.5%

6.6%

Eurasia

573

569

525

529

-7.8%

0.9%

Russia

430

430

394

397

-8.3%

0.6%

Africa

276

268

248

254

-7.5%

2.2%

World

7 833

7 953

7 438

7 575

-6.5%

1.8%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite production (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

4 731

4 937

4 780

4 826

-3.2%

0.9%

China

2 961

3 081

3 086

3 074

0.1%

-0.4%

India

782

777

737

765

-5.1%

3.7%

Australia

311

318

290

293

-8.9%

1.0%

Indonesia

543

610

523

538

-14.4%

3.0%

North America

648

604

469

514

-22.4%

9.7%

United States

612

572

439

487

-23.2%

10.8%

Central and South America

86

85

61

57

-28.7%

-5.8%

Europe

578

520

439

449

-15.7%

2.4%

European Union

425

359

286

297

-20.4%

3.9%

Middle East

0

0

0

0

-31.3%

40.0%

Eurasia

463

451

419

418

-7.1%

-0.4%

Russia

330

322

297

294

-8.0%

-1.0%

Africa

265

260

241

245

-7.1%

1.8%

World

6 771

6 857

6 409

6 509

-6.5%

1.6%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal production (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

808

843

812

836

-3.6%

3.0%

China

588

612

605

611

-1.1%

1.0%

India

8

6

6

6

-5.0%

4.0%

Australia

178

187

170

183

-9.4%

8.1%

Indonesia

5

6

6

7

6.3%

7.0%

North America

111

106

88

90

-17.0%

2.1%

United States

74

68

51

53

-24.2%

2.7%

Central and South America

6

5

4

5

-20.4%

32.9%

Europe

16

15

12

12

-22.2%

6.2%

European Union

16

14

11

12

-23.3%

6.4%

Middle East

1

2

1

2

-5.0%

4.0%

Eurasia

109

118

105

112

-10.3%

6.1%

Russia

100

108

98

103

-9.3%

5.5%

Africa

11

9

7

8

-19.3%

18.7%

World

1 062

1 096

1 029

1 066

-6.1%

3.5%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal imports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Europe

209

175

144

149

-17.7%

3.2%

Japan

189

186

170

171

-8.9%

0.6%

Korea

136

130

118

113

-9.7%

-4.2%

Chinese Taipei

67

67

60

60

-10.5%

-1.5%

China

292

308

292

291

-5.3%

-0.3%

India

227

249

208

220

-16.6%

5.9%

Southeast Asia

115

139

146

156

5.0%

7.1%

Rest of world

169

176

163

164

-7.8%

1.0%

World

1 404

1 432

1 300

1 323

-9.2%

1.8%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite imports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Europe

145

115

90

89

-21.4%

-1.3%

Japan

142

140

133

131

-5.4%

-1.6%

Korea

99

93

84

78

-10.2%

-7.0%

Chinese Taipei

58

59

53

51

-10.0%

-3.0%

China

222

227

208

207

-8.3%

-0.3%

India

167

188

157

162

-16.6%

3.4%

Southeast Asia

105

124

131

141

5.5%

7.4%

Rest of world

135

143

131

131

-8.5%

0.4%

World

1 073

1 090

987

991

-9.4%

0.4%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal imports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Europe

64

60

54

60

-10.7%

10.6%

Japan

47

46

37

40

-19.6%

8.5%

Korea

36

37

34

35

-8.2%

2.9%

China

70

81

84

84

3.0%

0.0%

India

60

62

51

58

-16.8%

13.5%

Rest of world

54

56

53

56

-4.6%

4.6%

World

331

342

313

332

-8.5%

6.1%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal exports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Australia

387

395

366

385

-7.5%

5.3%

Canada

34

36

36

35

-1.8%

-2.4%

Colombia

84

72

58

52

-19.5%

-10.2%

Indonesia

434

455

404

410

-11.2%

1.5%

Russia

210

217

207

207

-4.5%

-0.2%

South Africa

82

81

75

76

-6.6%

0.8%

United States

105

84

59

59

-30.5%

0.0%

Rest of world

99

105

88

100

-16.0%

13.3%

World

1 434

1 445

1 292

1 323

-10.6%

2.4%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite exports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Australia

208

213

199

205

-6.5%

3.0%

Colombia

82

69

56

49

-19.3%

-12.4%

Indonesia

429

449

398

404

-11.4%

1.4%

Russia

175

184

177

175

-3.9%

-1.4%

South Africa

81

79

74

75

-6.4%

0.6%

United States

48

33

21

21

-37.0%

-2.1%

Rest of world

59

64

58

63

-10.2%

9.8%

World

1 081

1 093

983

991

-10.0%

0.8%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal exports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Australia

179

182

167

180

-8.7%

8.1%

Canada

33

34

33

33

-5.3%

1.0%

Mongolia

27

30

26

29

-15.6%

14.3%

Mozambique

7

5

4

4

-27.4%

25.5%

Russia

35

33

30

32

-7.6%

6.5%

United States

57

51

38

38

-26.2%

1.2%

Rest of world

15

17

13

15

-20.8%

15.5%

World

352

352

309

332

-12.2%

7.4%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal demand (Mtce), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

4 083

4 171

4 087

4 176

-2.0%

2.2%

China

2 844

2 889

2 877

2 922

-0.4%

1.6%

India

575

575

533

556

-7.3%

4.4%

Japan

162

163

150

152

-7.7%

0.7%

Southeast Asia

215

250

253

270

0.9%

6.7%

North America

496

436

357

394

-18.0%

10.1%

United States

459

399

329

365

-17.7%

11.1%

Central and South America

45

46

40

40

-12.6%

-0.8%

Europe

392

334

286

294

-14.6%

2.9%

European Union

302

246

200

207

-19.0%

3.5%

Middle East

12

12

10

9

-17.6%

-12.0%

Eurasia

273

271

249

254

-8.2%

2.0%

Russia

173

173

161

164

-6.9%

1.9%

Africa

161

151

140

143

-7.3%

2.4%

World

5 462

5 421

5 168

5 308

-4.7%

2.7%

Notes: Mtce = million tonnes of coal equivalent. Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite demand (Mtce), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

3 346

3 401

3 327

3 394

-2.2%

2.0%

China

2 265

2 279

2 252

2 292

-1.2%

1.8%

India

519

519

488

502

-5.9%

2.7%

Japan

117

119

115

113

-3.2%

-1.6%

Southeast Asia

205

237

240

256

1.4%

6.6%

North America

468

409

335

369

-18.2%

10.3%

United States

440

380

313

348

-17.8%

11.3%

Central and South America

29

30

26

25

-13.3%

-5.7%

Europe

316

264

223

225

-15.5%

0.8%

European Union

238

188

149

151

-20.5%

1.3%

Middle East

8

8

6

5

-23.4%

-21.0%

Eurasia

188

179

165

165

-7.5%

0.0%

Russia

107

101

95

95

-5.8%

-0.2%

Africa

157

146

136

139

-7.1%

2.2%

World

4 511

4 437

4 219

4 322

-4.9%

2.5%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal demand (Mtce), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

737

771

760

782

-1.5%

2.9%

China

579

610

624

630

2.3%

0.9%

India

56

55

44

54

-20.2%

22.8%

Japan

44

44

36

39

-19.6%

8.2%

Southeast Asia

11

14

13

14

-6.4%

9.5%

North America

27

27

23

24

-15.1%

7.1%

United States

19

19

16

17

-15.8%

6.7%

Central and South America

17

15

14

15

-11.0%

8.6%

Europe

76

71

63

69

-11.4%

10.1%

European Union

65

59

50

55

-14.2%

9.9%

Middle East

4

4

4

4

-5.2%

3.4%

Eurasia

85

92

84

89

-9.5%

6.0%

Russia

66

72

66

69

-8.5%

5.1%

Africa

5

4

4

4

-12.4%

8.8%

World

951

984

949

986

-3.5%

3.9%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal production (Mtce), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

4 015

4 190

4 050

4 102

-3.3%

1.3%

China

2 657

2 753

2 750

2 747

-0.1%

-0.1%

India

416

410

389

404

-5.1%

3.8%

Australia

414

430

390

406

-9.3%

4.3%

Indonesia

411

460

395

407

-14.1%

3.0%

North America

581

545

426

462

-21.7%

8.4%

United States

527

492

376

413

-23.5%

9.7%

Central and South America

83

81

58

56

-28.1%

-3.6%

Europe

212

189

158

162

-16.6%

2.7%

European Union

168

144

115

119

-19.9%

3.6%

Middle East

2

2

2

2

-7.3%

6.3%

Eurasia

444

440

406

411

-7.6%

1.2%

Russia

348

347

321

324

-7.6%

0.9%

Africa

225

217

201

206

-7.6%

2.4%

World

5 562

5 663

5 301

5 400

-6.4%

1.9%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite production (Mtce), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

3 288

3 432

3 321

3 350

-3.2%

0.9%

China

2 140

2 217

2 220

2 212

0.1%

-0.4%

India

410

406

385

400

-5.1%

3.8%

Australia

241

248

225

229

-9.2%

1.5%

Indonesia

406

454

389

401

-14.4%

3.0%

North America

477

446

345

379

-22.6%

9.9%

United States

455

426

327

362

-23.4%

10.8%

Central and South America

78

76

54

51

-28.6%

-6.1%

Europe

196

174

146

150

-16.1%

2.4%

European Union

152

130

105

108

-19.5%

3.3%

Middle East

0

0

0

0

-31.3%

40.0%

Eurasia

338

327

305

304

-6.6%

-0.5%

Russia

252

244

227

225

-6.8%

-1.0%

Africa

214

209

194

197

-7.1%

1.8%

World

4 591

4 664

4 366

4 431

-6.4%

1.5%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal production (Mtce), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Asia Pacific

728

758

729

752

-3.8%

3.1%

China

517

536

530

535

-1.1%

1.0%

India

6

4

4

4

-5.0%

3.9%

Australia

173

182

165

178

-9.4%

8.1%

Indonesia

5

6

6

6

6.3%

7.0%

North America

104

98

81

83

-17.7%

2.2%

United States

72

66

50

51

-24.4%

2.7%

Central and South America

5

5

4

5

-20.4%

32.9%

Europe

16

15

12

12

-22.3%

6.2%

European Union

16

14

11

12

-23.4%

6.3%

Middle East

1

1

1

1

-5.0%

3.9%

Eurasia

105

113

101

107

-10.6%

6.2%

Russia

97

103

93

99

-9.6%

5.6%

Africa

11

9

7

8

-19.3%

18.4%

World

971

999

935

969

-6.4%

3.6%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Seaborne coal imports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Europe

183

144

120

124

-16.6%

2.9%

Japan

189

186

170

171

-8.9%

0.6%

Korea

136

130

118

113

-9.7%

-4.2%

Chinese Taipei

67

67

60

60

-10.5%

-1.5%

China

260

273

261

257

-4.3%

-1.8%

India

227

249

208

220

-16.6%

5.9%

Southeast Asia

115

139

146

156

5.0%

7.1%

Rest of world

110

126

117

118

-7.3%

0.8%

World

1 286

1 316

1 200

1 218

-8.8%

1.5%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Seaborne thermal coal and lignite imports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Europe

120

85

67

65

-20.8%

-3.3%

Japan

142

140

133

131

-5.4%

-1.6%

Korea

99

93

84

78

-10.2%

-7.0%

Chinese Taipei

58

59

53

51

-10.0%

-3.0%

China

217

222

203

202

-8.5%

-0.4%

India

167

188

157

162

-16.6%

3.4%

Southeast Asia

105

124

131

141

5.5%

7.4%

Rest of world

93

104

96

96

-7.6%

0.0%

World

1 001

1 016

924

927

-9.0%

0.2%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Seaborne metallurgical coal imports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Europe

63

60

53

59

-10.7%

10.6%

Japan

47

46

37

40

-19.6%

8.5%

Korea

36

37

34

35

-8.2%

2.9%

China

43

51

58

54

13.9%

-6.4%

India

60

62

51

58

-16.8%

13.5%

Rest of world

36

45

42

45

-5.2%

5.3%

World

285

300

276

291

-8.0%

5.5%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Seaborne coal exports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Australia

387

395

366

385

-7.5%

5.3%

Canada

33

36

35

34

-1.8%

-2.4%

Colombia

84

72

58

52

-19.5%

-10.2%

Indonesia

434

455

404

410

-11.2%

1.5%

Russia

163

171

172

170

0.3%

-0.9%

South Africa

82

81

75

76

-6.6%

0.8%

United States

95

77

53

53

-31.1%

-0.2%

Rest of world

40

45

29

37

-35.3%

26.9%

World

1 317

1 331

1 191

1 217

-10.5%

2.1%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Seaborne thermal coal and lignite exports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Australia

208

213

199

205

-6.5%

3.0%

Colombia

82

69

56

49

-19.3%

-12.4%

Indonesia

429

449

398

404

-11.4%

1.4%

Russia

141

145

148

144

2.1%

-2.4%

South Africa

81

79

74

75

-6.4%

0.6%

United States

43

31

20

19

-35.7%

-1.7%

Rest of world

28

35

26

30

-27.0%

18.2%

World

1 011

1 021

920

927

-9.9%

0.7%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Seaborne metallurgical coal exports (Mt), 2018-2021

Region/country

2018

2019

2020

2021

2019-2020

2020-2021

Australia

179

182

167

180

-8.7%

8.1%

Canada

32

34

32

32

-5.4%

1.0%

Mozambique

7

5

4

4

-27.4%

25.5%

Russia

22

27

24

26

-9.1%

7.9%

United States

52

47

34

34

-28.1%

0.6%

Rest of world

14

15

11

14

-27.0%

23.8%

World

307

310

271

290

-12.5%

7.2%

Notes: Data for 2018 and 2019 are from IEA statistics; 2019 are preliminary; 2020 are estimated; 2021 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal demand (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Asia Pacific

5 650

5 718

5 896

0.4%

0.8%

China

3 793

3 875

3 880

0.7%

0.0%

India

997

946

1 068

-1.7%

3.1%

Japan

183

171

166

-2.2%

-0.7%

Southeast Asia

292

357

415

7.0%

3.8%

North America

670

526

394

-7.8%

-7.0%

United States

619

487

368

-7.7%

-6.8%

Central and South America

52

45

41

-4.8%

-2.4%

Europe

799

602

519

-9.0%

-3.6%

European Union

595

400

302

-12.4%

-6.8%

Middle East

13

10

18

-10.2%

17.9%

Eurasia

372

345

345

-2.5%

0.0%

Russia

230

217

210

-1.9%

-0.8%

Africa

210

187

195

-3.7%

1.1%

World

7 766

7 432

7 409

-1.5%

-0.1%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. CAAGR = compound average annual growth rate. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite demand (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Asia Pacific

4 819

4 839

5 074

0.1%

1.2%

China

3 135

3 161

3 231

0.3%

0.5%

India

930

882

995

-1.8%

3.1%

Japan

137

131

128

-1.4%

-0.6%

Southeast Asia

281

343

396

6.9%

3.7%

North America

644

503

372

-7.9%

-7.3%

United States

601

471

353

-7.8%

-7.0%

Central and South America

36

31

27

-5.0%

-3.4%

Europe

721

532

463

-9.7%

-3.4%

European Union

529

344

259

-13.4%

-6.8%

Middle East

9

6

13

-15.5%

24.1%

Eurasia

284

254

256

-3.6%

0.2%

Russia

161

146

141

-3.2%

-0.9%

Africa

205

183

190

-3.7%

1.0%

World

6 720

6 348

6 396

-1.9%

0.2%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal demand (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Asia Pacific

831

879

823

1.9%

-1.6%

China

657

714

649

2.8%

-2.4%

India

67

64

73

-1.2%

3.3%

Japan

46

40

38

-4.7%

-1.3%

Southeast Asia

11

15

18

10.4%

5.3%

North America

26

23

22

-4.3%

-0.8%

United States

18

15

14

-4.5%

-1.7%

Central and South America

16

14

14

-4.2%

-0.3%

Europe

77

70

56

-3.4%

-5.3%

European Union

66

56

43

-5.2%

-6.5%

Middle East

4

4

5

0.7%

6.6%

Eurasia

88

91

89

1.0%

-0.5%

Russia

69

71

69

1.1%

-0.7%

Africa

5

4

5

-5.9%

3.4%

World

1 047

1 084

1 013

1.2%

-1.7%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal production (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Asia Pacific

5 538

5 662

5 671

0.7%

0.0%

China

3 549

3 685

3 633

1.3%

-0.4%

India

790

771

850

-0.8%

2.5%

Australia

489

476

457

-0.9%

-1.0%

Indonesia

548

545

542

-0.2%

-0.1%

North America

759

604

467

-7.3%

-6.2%

United States

686

539

416

-7.7%

-6.3%

Central and South America

92

62

65

-12.1%

0.8%

Europe

594

461

410

-8.1%

-2.9%

European Union

441

308

243

-11.2%

-5.7%

Middle East

2

2

2

0.8%

0.0%

Eurasia

573

529

530

-2.6%

0.0%

Russia

430

397

392

-2.7%

-0.3%

Africa

276

254

264

-2.7%

1.0%

World

7 833

7 575

7 409

-1.1%

-0.6%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite production (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Asia Pacific

4 731

4 826

4 876

0.7%

0.3%

China

2 961

3 074

3 046

1.3%

-0.2%

India

782

765

844

-0.7%

2.5%

Australia

311

293

291

-2.0%

-0.2%

Indonesia

543

538

535

-0.3%

-0.1%

North America

648

514

384

-7.4%

-7.0%

United States

612

487

367

-7.4%

-6.8%

Central and South America

86

57

60

-12.9%

1.2%

Europe

578

449

399

-8.1%

-2.9%

European Union

425

297

233

-11.3%

-5.9%

Middle East

0

0

0

-1.3%

0.0%

Eurasia

463

418

420

-3.4%

0.2%

Russia

330

294

292

-3.8%

-0.1%

Africa

265

245

255

-2.5%

1.0%

World

6 771

6 509

6 395

-1.3%

-0.4%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal production (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Asia Pacific

808

836

794

1.2%

-1.3%

China

588

611

587

1.3%

-1.0%

India

8

6

6

-7.5%

0.0%

Australia

178

183

166

1.0%

-2.4%

Indonesia

5

7

7

8.5%

0.4%

North America

111

90

84

-6.8%

-1.7%

United States

74

53

49

-10.6%

-1.6%

Central and South America

6

5

5

-1.0%

-3.2%

Europe

16

12

11

-8.9%

-2.7%

European Union

16

12

10

-9.9%

-2.9%

Middle East

1

2

2

1.0%

0.0%

Eurasia

109

112

110

0.8%

-0.5%

Russia

100

103

100

0.9%

-0.6%

Africa

11

8

8

-9.2%

-0.2%

World

1 062

1 066

1 014

0.1%

-1.2%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal imports (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Europe

209

149

116

-10.7%

-6.1%

Japan

189

171

166

-3.4%

-0.7%

Korea

136

113

106

-6.0%

-1.6%

Chinese Taipei

67

60

59

-3.6%

-0.1%

China

292

291

251

-0.1%

-3.6%

India

227

220

218

-1.1%

-0.2%

Southeast Asia

115

156

177

10.6%

3.2%

Rest of world

169

164

178

-1.0%

2.0%

World

1 404

1 323

1 271

-2.0%

-1.0%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite imports (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Europe

145

89

68

-14.9%

-6.7%

Japan

142

131

128

-2.9%

-0.6%

Korea

99

78

74

-7.8%

-1.3%

Chinese Taipei

58

51

49

-3.7%

-1.0%

China

222

207

190

-2.2%

-2.2%

India

167

162

151

-1.1%

-1.7%

Southeast Asia

105

141

160

10.5%

3.2%

Rest of world

135

131

143

-0.9%

2.2%

World

1 073

991

962

-2.6%

-0.7%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Metallurgical coal imports (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Europe

64

60

48

-2.2%

-5.1%

Japan

47

40

38

-4.9%

-1.3%

Korea

36

35

32

-1.4%

-2.2%

China

70

84

62

6.1%

-7.4%

India

60

58

67

-1.1%

3.7%

Rest of world

54

56

62

1.0%

2.5%

World

331

332

308

0.1%

-1.8%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal exports (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Australia

387

385

371

-0.1%

-0.9%

Canada

34

35

33

0.9%

-1.2%

Colombia

84

52

54

-14.8%

1.1%

Indonesia

434

410

375

-1.9%

-2.2%

Russia

210

207

212

-0.5%

0.6%

South Africa

82

76

77

-2.4%

0.3%

United States

105

59

55

-17.7%

-1.7%

Rest of world

99

100

94

0.4%

-1.5%

World

1 434

1 323

1 271

-2.6%

-1.0%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Thermal coal and lignite exports (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Australia

208

205

208

-0.4%

0.4%

Colombia

82

49

52

-15.6%

1.5%

Indonesia

429

404

370

-2.0%

-2.2%

Russia

175

175

180

-0.2%

0.8%

South Africa

81

75

76

-2.6%

0.3%

United States

48

21

19

-24.7%

-2.0%

Rest of world

59

63

58

2.7%

-2.2%

World

1 081

991

963

-2.9%

-0.7%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Met coal exports (Mt), 2018-2025

Region/country

2018

2021

2025

CAAGR
2018-2021

CAAGR
2021-2025

Australia

179

180

163

0.2%

-2.5%

Canada

33

33

31

0.1%

-1.6%

Mongolia

27

29

28

2.4%

-0.9%

Mozambique

7

4

4

-13.6%

0.0%

Russia

35

32

32

-2.0%

-0.4%

United States

57

38

36

-12.5%

-1.5%

Rest of world

15

15

14

-0.6%

-2.1%

World

352

332

308

-2.0%

-1.9%

Notes: Data for 2018 from IEA statistics; 2021 and 2025 are forecasts. Differences in totals are due to rounding.

Coal mining projects

Country

Project

Company

Type

Earliest proposed start-up

Proposed full capacity (Mtpa)

Resource

Status

Australia

Airly Increase Production (Mod 3)

Centennial Coal

E

2021+

1.2

TC

LA

Australia

Alpha Coal Project

GVK Hancock

N

..

27

TC

LA

Australia

Alpha North Coal Project

Waratah Coal

N

2030+

40

TC

LA

Australia

Alpha West Coal Project

GVK Hancock

N

..

24

TC

LA

Australia

Angus Place Extension Project

Centennial Coal

E

..

4

TC

LA

Australia

Aquila project

Anglo-American / Mitsui

E

2022

3.5

CC

MA

Australia

Ashton South East opencut

Yancoal Australia

E

2025+

2.4

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Baralaba South

Cockatoo Coal

E

2022+

3.5

PCI

LA

Australia

Belview

Stanmore Coal

N

2023+

2.6

TC, CC, PCI

LA

Australia

Broughton Coal Project

U&D Mining Industry

N

..

3

CC

LA

Australia

Bulga (Mod 3 & Mod 7)

Glencore

E

2030+

 

TC

LA

Australia

Bundi

MetroCoal

N

..

5

TC

LA

Australia

Byerwen Coal Project Stage 2

Qcoal/JFE Steel

N

2021

7

TC, CC

MA

Australia

Bylong Coal Project

Korean Electric Power Corporation

N

..

6.5

TC

LA

Australia

Cameby Downs

Yancoal Australia

E

2020

0.7

TC

MA

Australia

Carmichael Coal Project

Adani

N

2021

10

TC

MA

Australia

Carmichael Coal Project Stage 2

Adani

E

..

15

TC

LA

Australia

China Stone

MacMines Austasia

N

..

38

TC

LA

Australia

Clifford

Stanmore Coal

N

..

5

TC

LA

Australia

Clyde Park Project

Clyde Park Coal Pty Ltd

N

..

1.8

TC

LA

Australia

Columboola Project

SincoCoal And MetroMining

N

2023

5

TC

LA

Australia

Comet Ridge

Springsure Creek Coal

N

2025+

0.4

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Cooroorah 

Bowen cokin coal

N

..

 

CC

LA

Australia

Curragh Extension

Coronado Global

E

2023

3

TC, CC

MA

Australia

Dawson West

Civil & Mining Resources

N

..

1.6

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Dendrobium Extension Project

South32

E

2025+

5.2

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Dysart East

Bengal Energy

N

2023

1.9

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Eagle Downs

South32 / Aquila Resources

N

2022

4.5

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Elimatta

New Hope

N

2025+

5

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Galilee Coal Project

Waratah Coal

N

..

40

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Grosvenor Phase 2

Anglo American

E

2025+

6

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Grosvenor West

Qinghai Kingho Group

N

2025+

5

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Hillalong

Shandong Energy Group

N

2025+

4.2

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Hume Coal Project

Hume Coal (POSCO)

N

2023+

3

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Ironbark No. 1 (Ellensfield)

Fitzroy Australia Resources

N

..

6

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Isaac Plains Complex - Isaac Downs Project

Stanmore Coal

N

2024+

2

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Isaac Plains Complex - Underground extension

Stanmore Coal

E

..

1.2

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Karin

Vitrinite / Itochu Corporation

N

..

 

CC

LA

Australia

Kevin's Corner

GVK

N

..

30

TC

LA

Australia

Liddell new mining area

Glencore & Mitsui

E

2023

 

TC

LA

Australia

Mandalong Southern Extension Project

Centennial Coal

E

2022+

 

TC

MA

Australia

Mangoola Coal Continued Operations Project

Glencore

E

..

13.5

TC

LA

Australia

Maxwell Project

Malabar Coal

N

2026+

5

TC

LA

Australia

Minyango

Bounty Mining

N

2025+

3

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Moorlands

Cuesta Coal

N

2022+

1.9

TC

LA

Australia

Moranbah South

Anglo American / Exxaro

N

2025+

18

CC

LA

Australia

Mount Owen (Glendell Mine) Continued Operations Project

Glencore

E

2021

 

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Mt Pleasant Optimisation Project

MACH Energy Australia

E

..

8.5

TC

LA

Australia

Narrabri Stage 3

Whitehaven Coal

E

2024+

 

TC

LA

Australia

Neubeck Coal Project

Centennial Coal

N

..

1.2

TC

LA

Australia

New Acland (Stage 3)

New Hope

E

2021+

4.5

TC

LA

Australia

New Lenton

New Hope / MPC

N

2022+

1.5

TC, CC, PCI

LA

Australia

Newstan Colliery Extension Project

Centennial Coal

E

2024

1.6

TC, CC

LA

Australia

North Surat - Collingwood Project

New Hope Coal

N

2024+

4

TC

LA

Australia

North Surat - Taroom Project

New Hope Coal

N

2024+

8

TC

LA

Australia

North Surat - Woori Project

New Hope Coal

N

2024+

2.5

TC

LA

Australia

Olive Downs

Pembroke Resources

N

..

10.5

CC

LA

Australia

Olive Downs Stage 1

Pembroke Resources

N

2022

4.5

CC

MA

Australia

Red Hill Mine

BHP Billiton / Mitsubishi Alliance

N

2024

14

CC

LA

Australia

Rolleston Expansion Project

Glencore, Sumisho, IRCA

E

2024+

5

TC

LA

Australia

Saraji East

BHP Billiton / Mitsubishi Alliance

N

2025

7

CC

LA

Australia

South Galilee Coal Project

Alpha Coal Pty Ltd and AMCI (Alpha) Pty Ltd

N

..

3

TC

LA

Australia

Springsure Creek

Adamelia Group

N

..

11

TC

LA

Australia

Spur Hill

Malabar Coal

N

2023

6

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Styx (Central Queensland Coal Project)

Central Queensland Coal Pty Ltd

N

..

2

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Tahmoor South Coal Project

SIMEC Group

E

2022

4

CC

LA

Australia

Talwood

Aquila Resources

N

2025+

3.6

CC

LA

Australia

Taroborah

Shenhua Energy

N

2020+

5.73

TC

LA

Australia

Teresa

United Mining Group

N

2023+

6.4

TC, PCI

LA

Australia

The Range Project

Stanmore Coal

N

2026+

5

TC

LA

Australia

Togara North

Glencore

N

..

6

TC

LA

Australia

United-Wambo

Glencore & Peabody

E

2020

6.5

TC, CC

MA

Australia

Valeria Coal Project

Glencore

N

 

20

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Vermont East/Willunga

Pembroke Resources

E

2025+

4

TC, CC, PCI

LA

Australia

Vickery Extension Project

Whitehaven

N

2023

3.6

TC, CC

LA

Australia

Wallarah 2 Coal Project

Korea Resources Corp

N

2022+

5

TC

LA

Australia

Walton

Aquila Resources

N

2023+

1.6

PCI

LA

Australia

Wandoan

Glencore

N

2025+

22

TC

LA

Australia

Wards Well

BHP Billiton / Mitsubishi Alliance

N

2024

6

CC

LA

Australia

Washpool

Aquila Resources

N

2026

2.6

CC

LA

Australia

Watermark

Shenhua Energy

N

2022+

10

TC

LA

Australia

Wilton-Fairhill

Futura Resources

N

2021

3

CC

MA

Australia

Winchester South

Whitehaven Coal

N

2025+

15

TC

LA

Canada

Carbon Creek

Cardero Coal

N

2022

4.1

CC

LA

Canada

Central South

Glencore

E

2023

1.5

CC

LA

Canada

Chinook

Montem

N

..

 

CC

LA

Canada

Crown Mountain

Jameson Resources

N

2020

1.7

CC

MA

Canada

Echo Hill

Hillsborough Resources

N

..

1

TC

LA

Canada

Elko

Pacific American Coal

N

..

 

CC

LA

Canada

Gething

Bathurst Resources

N

2024

2

CC

LA

Canada

Grassy Mountain

Riversdale Resources

N

2023

4.5

CC

LA

Canada

Groundhog

Atrum Coal

N

..

0.9

A

LA

Canada

Murray River

HD Mining

N

..

6

CC

LA

Canada

Quintette

Teck Resources

N

..

3.5

CC

LA

Canada

Roman Mountain

Anglo American

N

2022

2.1

CC

LA

Canada

Sukunka

Glencore

N

..

3

CC

LA

Canada

Tenas

Allegiance Coal / Itochu

N

2021

0.75

CC

LA

Canada

Tent Mountain

Montem

E

2022

1.1

TC

LA

Canada

Vista Expansion

Coalspur Mines

E

2021

7

TC

LA

Canada

Wolverine-Hermann Amendment Project

Conuma Coal Resources Ltd.

N

2021

9

CC

LA

Colombia

Canaverales

Yildirim Holding

N

2021

2.5

TC

LA

Colombia

Papayal

Yildirim Holding

N

2021

2.5

TC

LA

Colombia

San Juan

Yildirim Holding

N

2021

16

TC, PCI

LA

Indonesia

Adaro MetCoal Companies (AMC) Concessions

Adaro

N

..

 

CC

LA

Indonesia

Bukit Enim Energi

Adaro

N

..

 

TC

LA

Indonesia

Bumi Barito Mineral

Cokal

N

2020

2

CC, PCI

MA

Indonesia

East Kutai Coal Project

Churchill Mining / Ridlatama Group

N

..

30

TC

LA

Indonesia

Graha Panca Karsa

tekno

N

..

 

TC

LA

Indonesia

Mitra Energi Agung

Indika

E

2026

 

TC

LA

Indonesia

Mustika Indah Permai

Adaro

N

..

 

TC

LA

Indonesia

Pakar North

Kangaroo Resources

N

2020

16

TC

LA

Indonesia

Tekno Orbit Persada

MEC Coal

N

..

5

TC

LA

Mongolia

Erdenebulag

Aspire Mining

N

..

 

TC

LA

Mongolia

Nuurstei

Aspire Mining

N

2019

1

CC

LA

Mongolia

Ovoot

Aspire Mining

N

2021

10

CC

LA

Mongolia

Shinejinst

Gobi Coal and Energy

N

2021

3

CC

MA

Mongolia

Tavan Tolgoi Extension

Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi

E

2021

19

CC

LA

Mozambique

Benga Extension

ICVL

E

2021

15

CC

LA

Mozambique

Minas Moatize

Beacon Hill Resources

E

..

 

CC

LA

Mozambique

Moatize

Vale/Mitsui

E

2021

8

TC, CC

LA

Mozambique

Ncondezi

Ncondezi Energy

N

2021

1.5

TC

LA

Mozambique

Revuboe

Talbot Group, Nippon Steel and POSCO

N

..

6

TC, CC

LA

Mozambique

Zambeze

ICVL

N

2023

12

CC

LA

Russia

Amaam

Tiger Realm Coal

E

2022

6.5

CC

LA

Russia

Butovskaya (Stage 2)

Industrial Metallurgical Holding

E

2021

0.8

CC

MA

Russia

Chernogorsky

SUEK

E

2022

3.5

TC

MA

Russia

Denisovskaya East

Kolmar

E

2021

4

CC

MA

Russia

Elegest Expansion

Tuva Energy Industry Corporation (TEPK)

E

..

10

CC

LA

Russia

Elga

Mechel

E

..

6.7

TC, CC

MA

Russia

Inaglinsky-1

Kolmar

E

2021

4

CC

MA

Russia

Inaglinsky-2

Kolmar

E

..

8

CC

LA

Russia

Karakansky (Stage III)

Karakan Invest

E

2019

3

TC

LA

Russia

Pravoberezhny

SUEK

E

2021

3

TC

LA

Russia

Sibirskaya

UglePromInvest

N

2021

6

TC

LA

Russia

Tikhova Stage 2

Industrial Metallurgical Holding

E

2022

1.3

CC

MA

Russia

Usinsky-3

NLMK

N

2021

2.7

CC

LA

Russia

Zhernovski Gluboki

NLMK

N

..

 

CC

LA

Russia

Zhernovskoye-1

NLMK

N

2022

3.6

CC

LA

South Africa

Argent

Glencore/Shanduka

N

..

1.2

TC

LA

South Africa

Birmingham underground project

Canyon Coal

N

..

3.6

TC

LA

South Africa

Boikarabelo

Resource Generation

N

2021

6

TC

MA

South Africa

Boikarabelo Stage 2

Resource Generation

E

2025+

6

TC

LA

South Africa

De Wittekrans

Canyon Coal

N

2020

0.2

TC

MA

South Africa

Driefonten

Canyon Coal

N

..

0.6

TC

LA

South Africa

Grootegluk 6 Phase 2

Exxaro Resources

N

2020

1.7

CC

MA

South Africa

Kangala life expansion

Universal Coal

E

..

2.4

TC

MA

South Africa

Klipspruit life extension project

South32

E

2021

 

TC

MA

South Africa

Koornfontein OC

Tegeta Mining and Resources

E

..

3.3

TC

LA

South Africa

Koppie

Canyon Coal

N

..

1.8

TC

LA

South Africa

Mafube

Exxaro/Anglo American

E

2019

3.1

TC

MA

South Africa

Makhado Phase 1

MC Mining

N

2020

1.1

TC, CC

MA

South Africa

Makhado Phase 2

MC Mining

E

2022

1.8

TC, CC

LA

South Africa

Moabsvelden

Wescoal

N

2020

2.4

TC

MA

South Africa

New Largo

Seriti/Coalzar/IDC

N

..

12

TC

LA

South Africa

Optimum Coal Mine Expansion

Tegeta Mining and Resources

E

..

12

TC

LA

South Africa

Palmietkuilen

Canyon Coal

N

2020

2.4

TC

LA

South Africa

Springfield

Canyon Coal

N

2021

7

TC

LA

South Africa

Thabametsi

Exxaro

N

2021

3.9

TC

MA

South Africa

Witfontein

Canyon Coal

N

2021

1.2

TC

LA

United States

Berwind Expansion

Ramaco Resources, Inc.

E

2020

0.8

CC

MA

United States

Blue Creek No. 1

Warrior Met Coal

E

2023

4.3

CC

LA

United States

Brook Mine

Ramaco Carbon LCC

N

2021

0.25

TC

LA

United States

Bulldog Mine

Sunrise Coal

N

..

3

TC

LA

United States

Cypress Mine

Paringa Resources Ltd.

N

2021

3.8

TC

LA

United States

Itmann

Consol Energy

N

2021

0.6

CC

MA

United States

Knox Creek

Ramaco Resources, Inc.

N

2021

0.7

CC

LA

United States

Leer South

Arch Coal

E

2021

3

CC

MA

United States

Longview

North Central Ressources, LLC

N

2022

4

CC

LA

United States

Lynn Branch mine

Contura

N

2020

1.2

CC

MA

United States

RAM Mine

Ramaco Resources, Inc.

N

2022

0.5

CC

LA

Definitions

Coal is a solid, combustible fossil sedimentary rock. Coal comes from buried vegetation transformed by the action of high pressure and temperatures over millions of years.

The degree of transformation from the original plant source. It is loosely related to the age of the coal and is mainly determined from random reflectance of the vitrinite, one of coal’s organic components. The ranks of coal, in decreasing order of transformation from high to low, are: anthracite, bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite and peat. This report distinguishes between hard coal (anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal) and lignite, while peat is not considered.

Refers to a range of coal age, composition and other properties. Many classifications are used around the world with the main parameter as the coal rank supplemented by its intended use, i.e. thermal or metallurgical applications. 

Represents a variety of properties exhibited by coal when it is used. Calorific value and impurity content are the main parameters defining the quality of thermal coal, whereas caking properties, resistance and impurity content are the distinguishing characteristics for coking coal.

Refers to hard coal used for purposes other than metallurgy in this report.

High-quality coal to produce coke used in blast furnaces to make pig iron. Coking coal and metallurgical coal are terms sometimes used interchangeably.

High-quality steam coal mixed with coking coal to produce coke for blast furnaces.

A high-quality steam coal injected into a blast furnace to reduce coke consumption.

Refers to coking coal, semi-soft coal and pulverised coal Injection coal in this report. Although anthracite is often used for metallurgical purposes, it is classified as thermal coal in this report.

Raw coal as it is mined previous to any processing.

A unit of energy widely used in the international coal industry. It is defined as 7 million kilocalories (kcal). Therefore, the relationship between tce and physical tonnes depends on the net calorific value of the coal. One tonne of coal with a net calorific value of 7 000 kcal per kilogramme (kcal/kg) represents 1 tce.

A technique used to remove coal from a natural deposit. Coal deposits in the Earth’s crust occur at various depths and seam configurations, which determine the mining method used. Generally, deep deposits are mined underground and shallow deposits are opencast mines. The strip ratio largely determines whether an opencast mine is profitable or not.

The overburden or waste material removedusually expressed as cubic metres per tonnes of coal extracted. High strip ratios make opencast mining unprofitable.

A method in which the overburden is first drilled, then blasted and when the deposit is accessible, coal is removed in a similar way to the overburden. Power shovels, conveyor belts and trucks may be used to remove the coal as well as some extremely large machinery, such as draglines or bucket wheels. Opencast mining is usually less labour-intensive than underground mining, but has higher consumable costs, e.g. tyres, diesel and explosives. Generally, opencast methods imply greater environmental impact than underground mining.

A method in which access to coal seams is through underground shafts, galleries and tunnels. Although there are many ways to mine an underground deposit , coal is usually stripped by automatic shearers or continuous mechanical miners using either short/long walls or room-and-pillar exploitations. Underground mining is generally more labour-intensive and requires higher capital investments than opencast mining.

A process in which impurities (i.e. ash, moisture) are partially removed from raw coal to produce a higher quality coal.

Regional groupings

Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo (Congo), Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania (Tanzania), Togo, Tunisia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and other African countries and territories.

Asia Pacific: Southeast Asia regional grouping and Australia, Bangladesh, the People’s Republic of China and Hong Kong (China), Chinese Taipei, India, Japan, Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea), Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other Asian countries and territories.

Central and South America: Argentina, Plurinational State of Bolivia (Bolivia), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Venezuela), and other Central and South American countries and territories.

China: The People's Republic of China and Hong Kong.

Eurasia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation (Russia), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan

Europe: European Union regional grouping and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Gibraltar, Kosovo, Montenegro, Norway, Republic of North Macedonia, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

European Union (EU): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

Middle East: Bahrain, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic (Syria), the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

North America: Canada, Mexico and United States.

Southeast Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. These countries are all members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Abbreviations and acronyms

API                 Argus/McCloskey’s Coal Price Index

ARA                Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (price index)

ASEAN           Association of Southeast Asian Nations

BGR                Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Germany)

BSPI               Bohai-Rim Steam Coal Price Index (China)

CCGT             combined-cycle gas turbine

CCL                Central Coalfields (India)

CFR                cost and freight

CHP               combined heat and power

CIF                 cost, insurance and freight

CIL                 Coal India Limited

CNR               Colombian Natural Resources

CO2                carbon dioxide

CV                  calorific value

DMO              domestic market obligation

dwt                 deadweight tonnage

EIA                 Energy Information Administration (United States)

EU                  European Union

EUA                European Union Allowance

EU ETS           European Union Emissions Trading System

FESCO           FESCO Transportation Group (Russia)

FID                  final investment decision

FOB                free on board

FY                   fiscal year

FYP                 Five-Year Plan (China)

GDP               gross domestic product

HCC               hard coking coal

HH                  Henry Hub

ICVL               International Coal Ventures Private Limited

IEA                 International Energy Agency

IMF                 International Monetary Fund

IMO                International Maritime Organisation

IPO                 initial public offering

JCC                Japanese Crude Cocktail

KETS              Korea Emissions Trading Scheme

LHV                lower heating value

LNG               liquefied natural gas

MDO              mine developer operator

met                metallurgical

METI               Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (Japan)

MSTC             MSTC Limited (India)

NEA                National Energy Administration (China)

NCI                 National Coal Index (India)

NLC                NLC India Limited

NSW               New South Wales

NTPC             NTPC Limited (India)

OECD             Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PCI                 pulverised coal injection

PGG               Polska Grupa Górnicza S.A.

POSOCO       Power System Operation Corporation Limited (India)

PV                  photovoltaics

SCCL             Singareni Collieries Company Limited (India)

SUEK              Siberian Coal Energy Company

TTF                 Title Transfer Facility (Netherlands)

UHV               ultra-high voltage

US                  United States

USC                ultra-supercritical

y-o-y              year-on-year

Currency codes

AUD                Australian dollar

CNY               Chinese yuan renminbi

COP               Colombian peso

IDR                 Indonesian rupiah

RUB                Russian ruble

USD                United States dollar

ZAR                South African rand

Units of measure

Bt                    billion tonnes

dwt                 deadweight tonnage

GW                 gigawatt

kcal                kilocalorie

kg                   kilogramme

km                  kilometre

kt                    kilotonnes

Mt                   million tonnes

Mtpa              million tonnes per annum

MW                megawatt

t                      tonne

TWh               terawatt hours

Acknowledgements, contributors and credits

This publication was prepared by the Gas, Coal and Power Markets Division (GCP) of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The analysis was led and co-ordinated by Carlos Fernández Alvarez, Senior Coal Analyst. Fabian Arnold, Samir Jeddi and Carlos Fernández Alvarez were the authors. Keisuke Sadamori, Director of the IEA Energy Markets and Security (EMS) Directorate, and Peter Fraser, Head of GCP, provided expert guidance and advice.

Other IEA colleagues provided important contributions including Yasmina Abdelilah, Heymi Bahar, Paulina Becerra Zavala, Alessandro Blasi, Joel Couse, Jean-Baptiste Dubreuil, Antonio Erias Rodríguez, Songho Jeon, Stefan Lorenczik, Akos Losz, Raimund Malischeck, Gergely Molnár, Sean O’Brien, Pawel Olejarnik, Siddarth Singh, Tomoko Uesawa and László Varró.

Special thanks go to the IEA China desk: Alan Searl, Rebecca McKimm and Xu Chengwu for their tireless research on China.

Timely and comprehensive data from the IEA Energy Data Centre were fundamental to the report. Laura Marí Martínez and Mathilde Daugy provided invaluable support.

The IEA Communication and Digital Office (CDO) provided production and launch support. Particular thanks to Jad Mouawad and the CDO team: Astrid Dumond, Tanya Dyhin, Merve Erdem, Christopher Gully, Jethro Mullen, Rob Stone and Therese Walsh.

Kristine Douaud and Debra Justus edited the report.

Our gratitude goes to the Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne (EWI) for sharing its breadth of coal expertise and modelling.

CRU provided invaluable data and information for this report. Special thanks go to Dmitry Popov for his advice and suggestions.

Our gratitude goes to the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) for their support.

A number of international experts provided input and/or reviewed the draft report. Their suggestions and comments were very valuable. They include: Kevin Ball (Whiteheaven Coal); Paul Baruya (IEA Clean Coal Centre); Mick Buffier (Glencore); Howard Gatiss (CMC); Ayaka Jones (US Department of Energy); Liu Yunhui (Tsinghua University); Roland Lübke (German Coal Association); Lukazs Mazanek (Polska Grupa Górnicza); Liam McHugh (World Coal Association); Peter Morris (Minerals Council of Australia); Patricia Naulitua Lumban Gaol (Adaro Coaltrade Services International Pte Ltd); G Renjith (The Energy and Resources Institute in New Delhi); Brian Ricketts (Euracoal); Hans Wilhem Schiffer (RWE) and Akira Yabumoto (J-POWER).

The individuals and organisations that contributed to this report are not responsible for any opinion or judgement it contains. Any error or omission is the sole responsibility of the IEA.

For questions and comments, please contact Carlos Fernández Alvarez (Carlos.Fernandez@iea.org).