IEA (2019), Energy Policies of IEA Countries: United States 2019 Review, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/energy-policies-of-iea-countries-united-states-2019-review, License: CC BY 4.0
The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. In the United States, the shale revolution continues to be a driving force for energy policy, shifting it from a mindset of energy scarcity to one of energy abundance. Innovations in oil and gas extraction through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have vastly increased the importance of US production in the energy landscape, both at home and internationally. The timely siting of supporting infrastructure will be essential to ensure continued gains from the shale boom.
US government policy is centred on the concept of “energy dominance,” which reflects a strategy of maximising energy production, expanding exports and being a leader in energy technologies. Environmental deregulation is a central focus, though it may have implications for the trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States has achieved notable reductions in CO2 emissions over the past decade, led by its power sector. Low-cost shale gas combined with falling costs and policy support for renewables have shifted dependence away from coal-fired generation. Still, closures of coal and nuclear plants are expected to continue, requiring policy and regulatory responses to ensure a steady transition. Energy security remains a priority for the United States, which continues to demonstrate a strong focus on reliability and resilience. In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help the United States smoothly manage the transformation of its energy sector.