IEA (2023), National Reliance on Russian Fossil Fuel Imports, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/national-reliance-on-russian-fossil-fuel-imports, License: CC BY 4.0
How Russian fossil fuel imports are used in selected countries
This tool analyses how various countries used energy imports from Russia in 2019. By following the path taken by energy commodities from their importation to their final use, it reveals which sectors and countries would be most vulnerable to international bans on imports from Russia. To best identify which individual sectors are most affected, the tool allocates primary fuels used for electricity generation to the actual end-users of that power.
The findings are the result of the IEA’s analysis of its own data.
The following assumptions were used:
- 2019 is the reference year;
- Imports from different countries are distributed pro rata to final consumers
- Primary fuel for combined heat and power (CHP) plants are reallocated to the heat and power assuming heat efficiency to be at least 90%;
- Electricity reallocation is based on the amount of primary energy used for production;
- Electricity imports are assumed to have the same composition and reliance on Russia as internal production;
- Transmission losses are not allocated to final users;
- Russian reliance for each primary fuel is calculated as follows:
- The ad-hoc analysis on electricity generation was performed using data on output, not supply (while the analysis performed for sectoral end-uses follows the supply approach). This allows an analysis of possible changes to the electricity mix.