This report is part of Oil Market Report

About this report

The IEA Oil Market Report (OMR) is one of the world's most authoritative and timely sources of data, forecasts and analysis on the global oil market – including detailed statistics and commentary on oil supply, demand, inventories, prices and refining activity, as well as oil trade for IEA and selected non-IEA countries.


  • Higher prices and a deteriorating economic environment have started to take their toll on oil demand, but strong power generation use and a recovery in China are providing a partial offset. Global oil demand growth has been marginally reduced to 1.7 mb/d in 2022, reaching 99.2 mb/d. A further 2.1 mb/d gain is expected in 2023, led by a strong growth trajectory in non-OECD countries.
  • World oil supply jumped by 690 kb/d to 99.5 mb/d in June as resilient Russian production and higher output from the US and Canada more than offset steep maintenance-related losses from Kazakhstan. Production is expected to rise by 1.8 mb/d by end-year to reach 101.3 mb/d. Global oil supply is set to average 100.1 mb/d in 2022 before hitting an annual record of 101.1 mb/d in 2023.
  • Refinery throughputs rose by 500 kb/d in June, to 79.2 mb/d, 1.2 mb/d above a year ago. A number of outages and tight spare capacity outside of China meant that product supply failed to keep up with the seasonal increase in demand. Product cracks nevertheless fell from records highs observed in late May, but were on average substantially higher on a monthly basis.
  • Russian oil exports in June fell by 250 kb/d m-o-m to 7.4 mb/d, the lowest since August 2021. This time, the decline was led by crude oil, while product shipments were relatively stable at 2.4 mb/d. Meanwhile, export revenues increased by $700 million m-o-m on higher oil prices, to $20.4 billion, 40% above last year’s average.
  • Global observed oil inventories rose by a modest 5 mb in May as a sharp increase in non-OECD crude stocks was offset by lower OECD stocks and oil on the water. OECD industry stocks rose by 15.2 mb to 2 691 mb, still 301.3 mb below the 2017-2021 average, helped by the release of 32.1 mb of government stocks. Preliminary data for June show total OECD stocks built by 22 mb.
  • Benchmark crude oil futures plunged by more than $20/bbl in June as a worsening economic outlook fuelled a broad market sell-off. At the time of writing, Brent was below $100/bbl while WTI traded at around $96/bbl. Price premiums for physical barrels widened on rising seasonal demand for both crude and products while supply remains constrained.

Walking a tightrope

Rarely has the outlook for oil markets been more uncertain. A worsening macroeconomic outlook and fears of recession are weighing on market sentiment, while there are ongoing risks on the supply side. For now, weaker-than-expected oil demand growth in advanced economies and resilient Russian supply has loosened headline balances. Benchmark crude futures have tumbled by more than $20/bbl since early June, trading below $100/bbl at the time of writing. Yet, persistent physical crude price tensions and extreme refinery margins highlight underlying imbalances for crude and products supply.

In its latest update the World Bank warned that Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and its effects on commodity markets, supply chains, inflation and financial conditions have accentuated the slowdown in global economic activity. The bank now expects world GDP growth to ease to 2.9% in 2022 from 5.7% in 2021. The IMF has cautioned that a recession next year cannot be ruled out, given the elevated risks.

The deceleration of economic activity is adding further uncertainties to our oil demand forecast but, for now, we have only modestly trimmed our outlook for 2022 and 2023. High fuel prices have started to dent oil consumption in the OECD, but this was largely countered by a stronger-than-expected demand rebound in emerging and developing economies led by China as it starts to emerge from Covid lockdowns. Oil demand is now expected to expand by 1.7 mb/d in 2022 and 2.1 mb/d next year, when it reaches 101.3 mb/d.

Our forecast was revised slightly higher for oil supply for the remainder of the year due to Russia’s surprisingly strong performance. In June, global output rose by 690 kb/d to 99.5 mb/d, as Russia defied sanctions and the US and Canada pumped more. While world oil supply is expected to grow by roughly 1.8 mb/d through December, rising short-term risks to oil supply in Kazakhstan, Libya and elsewhere have put the spotlight on spare capacity, which now is held primarily by Saudi Arabia and the UAE. Their combined buffer could fall to just 2.2 mb/d in August with the full phase out of record OPEC+ cuts.

The OPEC+ group is due to meet on 3 August to chart strategy for September and possibly longer. Global oil inventories remain critically low, with recent builds concentrated in China, where refiners reduced runs due to weaker demand amid Covid lockdowns. OECD industry stocks have recovered somewhat thanks to sizeable government stock releases, but remain nearly 300 mb below their five-year average. As an EU embargo on Russian oil is set to come into full force at the end of the year, the oil market may tighten once again. With readily available spare capacity running low in both the upstream and downstream, it may be up to demand side measures to bring down consumption and fuel costs that pose a threat to stability, most notably in emerging markets. Without strong policy intervention on energy use, risks remain high that the world economy falls off-track for recovery.

OPEC+ crude oil production1
million barrels per day

May 2022
June 2022
June 2022
June 2022
Eff Spare Cap
vs Jun3
Algeria 1.01 1.02 110% 1.02 1.0 0.0
Angola 1.16 1.18 728% 1.48 1.2 0.0
Congo 0.26 0.28 470% 0.32 0.3 0.0
Equatorial Guinea 0.09 0.09 925% 0.12 0.1 0.0
Gabon 0.18 0.19 -48% 0.18 0.2 0.0
Iraq 4.43 4.44 148% 4.51 4.8 0.4
Kuwait 2.67 2.65 187% 2.72 2.8 0.1
Nigeria 1.11 1.17 1156% 1.77 1.5 0.4
Saudi Arabia 10.50 10.62 113% 10.66 12.2 1.6
UAE 3.14 3.17 -2% 3.07 4.1 1.0
Total OPEC-10 24.55 24.81 229% 25.86 28.24 3.5
Iran4 2.51 2.57 3.8
Libya4 0.77 0.63 1.2 0.6
Venezuela4 0.73 0.73 0.8 0.0
Total OPEC 28.56 28.74 34.00 4.0
Azerbaijan 0.57 0.52 884% 0.70 0.6 0.1
Kazakhstan 1.58 1.24 859% 1.65 1.7 0.4
Mexico5 1.62 1.63 1.75 1.7 0.0
Oman 0.84 0.85 105% 0.85 0.9 0.0
Russia 9.26 9.74 372% 10.66 10.2
Others6 0.82 0.86 732% 1.07 0.9 0.1
Total Non-OPEC 14.69 14.86 461% 16.69 15.88 0.6
OPEC+-19 in cut deal4 37.62 38.04 314% 40.81 42.46 4.0
Total OPEC+ 43.25 43.60 49.88 4.6

1. Excludes condensates. 2. Capacity levels can be reached with 90 days and sustained for extended period. 3. Excludes shut in Iranian, Russian crude. 4. Iran, Libya, Venezuela exempt from cuts. 5. Mexico excluded from OPEC+ compliance. Only cut in May, June 2020. 6. Bahrain, Brunei, Malaysia, Sudan and South Sudan.