Solar photovoltaic plants, wind farms and electric vehicles generally require more critical minerals to build than their fossil fuel-based counterparts. A typical electric car requires six times the mineral inputs of a conventional car and an offshore wind plant requires thirteen times more mineral resources than a similarly sized gas-fired plant. Since 2010 the average amount of mineral resources needed for a new unit of power generation capacity has increased by 50% as the share of renewables in new investment has risen.
The types of mineral resources used vary by technology. Lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese and graphite are crucial to battery performance. Rare earth elements are essential for permanent magnets that are used in wind turbines and EV motors. Electricity networks need a huge amount of copper and aluminium, with copper being a cornerstone for all electricity-related technologies.
As countries accelerate their efforts to reduce emissions, they also need to make sure that energy systems remain resilient and secure. The rising importance of critical minerals in a decarbonising energy system requires energy policy makers to expand their horizons and consider potential new vulnerabilities. Concerns about price volatility and security of supply do not disappear in an electrified, renewables-rich energy system.
This is why the IEA is paying close attention to the issue of critical minerals and their role in energy transitions.
Clean energy transitions implies a significant increase in demand for minerals
However, a concerted effort to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement (as in the Sustainable Development Scenario) would mean a quadrupling of mineral requirements for clean energy technologies by 2040. An even faster transition, to hit net-zero globally by 2050, would require up to six times more mineral inputs in 2040 than today.
The rising risk of delayed or more expensive energy transitions
These risks are real, but they are surmountable. How policy makers and companies respond will determine whether critical minerals are a vital enabler for clean energy transitions, or a bottleneck in the process.
Critical minerals threaten a decades-long trend of cost declines for clean energy technologies
Reducing the impact of extractive industries on groundwater resources
Net Zero by 2050
A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector