This report was prepared by the Energy Supply and Investment Outlook (ESIO) Division of the Directorate of Sustainability, Technology and Outlooks in co-operation with the Renewable Energy Division (RED) of the Directorate of Energy Markets and Security at the International Energy Agency (IEA). The principal authors were Michela Cappannelli, Christophe McGlade and Peter Zeniewski (ESIO), and Pharoah Le Feuvre (RED), with major contributions from Tim Gould (Head of ESIO Division), who designed and directed the analysis.

Other key contributors from across the International Energy Agency were, Praveen Bains, Arthur Contejean, Timothy Goodson, Apostolos Petropoulos and Molly A. Walton. Ryszard Pośpiech and Eleni Tsoukala provided essential support.

Valuable comments and feedback were provided by senior management and numerous other colleagues within the IEA, in particular, Laura Cozzi, Paolo Frankl, Keisuke Sadamori, Laszlo Varro and Mechthild Wörsdörfer.

The analysis relies heavily on the scenario analysis and modelling undertaken by the entire World Energy Outlook team.

Thanks also go to Astrid Dumond, Tanya Dyhin, Maria Kyriacou, Jad Mouawad, Jethro Mullen and Therese Walsh of the Communications and Digital Office. Erin Crum was the editor.

Valuable input was provided by Paul Hughes (independent consultant), and by the IEA Bioenergy TCP Task 37 (Jerry D. Murphy, School of Engineering University College Cork).

The United States Environmental Protection Agency provided invaluable support to this report.

Many experts from outside the IEA provided input, commented on the underlying analytical work, and reviewed a preliminary draft of the report. Their comments and suggestions were of great value. The work also benefited greatly from discussions at a high-level workshop held in Paris on 19 February 2019.

The individuals and organisations that contributed to this study are not responsible for any opinions or judgements it contains. All errors and omissions are solely the responsibility of the IEA.

Peer reviewers

  • Gabriel Kropsch (ABIOGAS – Brazilian Biogas and Biomethane Association)
  • Marco Pezzaglia (CIB – Italian Consortium Biogas)
  • Dou Kejun (CNREC – China National Renewable Energy Center)
  • Susana Lagarto (EIB – European Investment Bank)
  • Marta Kamola-Martines (Engie)
  • Ottavia Stella (Eni)
  • Séan Kinsella, Cihan Soenmez (ENTSOG - European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas)
  • Jerry Murphy (IEA TCP - Bioenergy - Task 37)
  • Martin Lambert (OIES – The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies)
  • Kim Gi-Eun (Seokyeong University, Seoul Korea)
  • Wim van Nes (SNV – Netherlands Development Organisation)
  • Pablo Kroff (SUEZ)
  • Masazumi Hirono (Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.)
  • Denise M Mulholland (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)


Cedigaz (2019). Global biomethane market: Green gas goes global (press release, 20 March).

Clemens et al. (2018). Africa Biogas Partnership Program: A review of clean cooking implementation through market development in East Africa. Energy for Sustainable Development.

Dennehy C. et al. (2017). Stochastic modelling of the economic viability of on-farm co-digestion of pig manure and food waste in Ireland.

EBA (European Biogas Association) (2019). Statistical report.

ETSAP (Energy Technology System Analysis Programme) (2013). Biogas and bio-syngas production.

European Commission. (2019). Fertilisers in the EU.

Giuntoli J. et al. (2015). Solid and gaseous bioenergy pathways: Input values and GHG emissions. Italy: European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Ispra.

GMI (Global Methane Institute) (2019). India methane emissions (web page).

GRDF (Gaz réseau distribution France) (2018). Perspectives gaz naturel & renouvelables sur l'horizon 2018-2035 [Natural gas and renewables perspectives, 2018-2035].

Hivos (2019). Beyond fire: How to achieve electrical cooking, 28 March.

IEA (International Energy Agency) (2019a). Renewables 2019.

IEA (2019b). World energy outlook 2019.

IEA (2018). World energy outlook 2018.

Koornneef J. et al. (2013). Potential for biomethane production with carbon capture, transport and storage up to 2050.

McDonagh S. et al. (2019). Are electro fuels a sustainable transport fuel? Analysis of the effect of controls on carbon, curtailment, and cost of hydrogen.

Navigant (2019). Gas for climate.

OIES (The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies) (2019). A mountain to climb? Tracking progress in scaling up renewable gas production in Europe.

Politecnico di Milano (2016). Cookstove costs, in “Defining energy access: 2019 methodology” (IEA article).

SNV (Netherlands Development Organisation) (2019). Technical potential for household biodigesters in Africa.

UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) (2019). CDM methodology booklet.

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) (2016). Methane emissions from dairy farming (fact sheet).

World Bank (2014). Clean and improved cooking in sub-Saharan Africa: A landscape report.